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Attitudes and Beliefs
Contents:
  1. Child Day Care: Selected full-text books and articles
  2. Chapter 1. Educating Everybody's Children: We Know What Works—And What Doesn't
  3. By a thread: How child care centers hold on to teachers, how teachers build lasting careers

Namely, we do not know how self-selection factors may be influencing results, and although we controlled for a host of observable child characteristics that are likely to be related to self-selection factors, the absence of a randomized design means that we cannot rule out the possibility of self-selection bias. The lack of a randomized design also makes it difficult to interpret some of our results. However, it is unclear whether teachers moved children more often because they had a conflicted relationship with the child to begin with, or whether the movement itself caused the disruption in the teacher-child relationship.

Thus, the results should be interpreted cautiously, as the direction of causality is unknown. The fact that teachers were repeatedly pulled away from their assigned classrooms across all hours of the working day may have put them under additional stress, thereby taxing their patience and straining their relationships with children. The sensitivity analysis showed that even when transitions occurred outside of instructional hours, there remained negative associations between movement and teacher-child relationship outcomes.

From a policy standpoint, this finding suggests that accordion grouping may not be developmentally appropriate, even during less structured parts of the day. A related policy question is whether these negative relationship outcomes would still be observed if teacher movements were restricted only to floater and assistant teachers. It is possible that the negative perceptions about the quality of the teacher-child relationship could be mitigated if head teachers remained in the assigned classrooms at all times, while floater and assistant teachers were allowed to move between classrooms.

Due to the fact that the vast majority of head teachers in our study moved between classrooms, we lacked the necessary variation to examine this scenario, but future studies should explore whether a consistent teacher presence at all times can ameliorate any potential consequences stemming from daily transitions. Taken together, our study found that the majority of directors may have been using accordion grouping as a way to comply with ratios and group sizes regulations.

Although accordion grouping may be a cost-effective strategy for limiting operational costs while meeting regulatory standards, it can also have detrimental impact on the quality of the teacher-child relationship. However, if additional research can identify the specific contexts under which accordion grouping may not be associated with impaired teacher-child relationships possibly under the scenario where head teachers maintain a consistent presence and secondary teachers move , it may make sense for directors to continue to employ accordion grouping, at least in circumscribed ways.

On the other hand, if future research confirms that daily transitions are associated with impaired teacher-child relationship outcomes under a variety of situations and conditions, then policymakers may need to offer incentives to directors to devise staffing arrangements that promote daily caregiving continuity. Overall, more research is needed to inform sensible approaches to policies regarding accordion grouping.

Casey Foundation. The content or opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect the views of the funders. We thank Qualistar Early Learning for their support for this study as well as three anonymous reviewers and the editor for their feedback. Any errors remain our own. However, our analysis continued to retain separate factor scores on conceptual grounds. For the purposes of this aspect of the analysis, we treated the classroom in which floater teachers spent the most time as their primary classroom.

Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively. Recent Activity. Such practices create frequent discontinuity in children's experiences in child care, including discontinuity in their peer and teacher relationships.


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This study examined the prevalence and patterns of teacher and child movement between classrooms, the characteristics of teachers and children who were more likely to move between classrooms on a daily basis, and the associations between children's and teachers' rate of daily movement between classrooms with children's social-emotional outcomes. Children's rate of movement was a positive predictor of teachers' perceived conflict with children in their care, and a negative predictor of teachers' perceived closeness.

The snippet could not be located in the article text. This may be because the snippet appears in a figure legend, contains special characters or spans different sections of the article. Dev Psychol. Author manuscript; available in PMC May 1. PMID: Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Dev Psychol.


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  • Abstract Many child care centers temporarily move children and teachers in and out of their assigned classrooms throughout the day. Keywords: caregiving practices, center instability, social-emotional outcomes. Prior Research on Caregiving Discontinuity Although continuity and stability of caregiving relationships are presumed to be associated with many developmental benefits for young children, the conditions in child care settings often interrupt the stability of the teacher-child relationship.

    This study seeks to extend previous research by examining the following research questions: What is the nature and prevalence of daily classroom movements experienced by preschool-aged children and their teachers? What are the resulting changes in classroom quality stemming from these daily movements? What are the characteristics of teachers and children who are more likely to experience daily movements between classrooms? Child recruitment Directors were provided with an informational packet and consent forms to distribute to parents of eligible children, defined as those between three and five years of age.


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    • Educating Everybody's Children: We Know What Works—And What Doesn't?
    • Marcy Whitebook | Page 7 | Center for the Study of Child Care Employment.
    • Movement between Classrooms To assess the frequency of movement between classrooms, parents were asked to sign their children in and out of the classroom in which they dropped off or picked up their child. Teacher qualifications Each teacher completed a survey regarding their highest level of education attained, years of teaching experience, and ECE credits earned. Procedures Centers were assigned a six-week assessment window.

      Analytic Sample and Approach Sample characteristics Our analysis was conducted on children linked to teachers in classrooms in 45 centers. Open in a separate window. Model details All analyses were conducted using the SAS software package.

      Child Day Care: Selected full-text books and articles

      Research question 1 To address the first research question regarding the prevalence of movement and changes in quality due to movement, we relied primarily on descriptive statistics. Research question 2 To address the second research question regarding the characteristics of teachers and children that were related to daily classroom transitions, we used Poisson regression analyses, which could control for the fact that movement was comprised of counts.

      Results Frequency and Patterns of Daily Caregiver Discontinuities As context for the findings below, it is important to keep in mind that accordion grouping practices create classrooms with flexible dynamics. Timing We also examined the rate of child and teacher movement throughout different times of the day. Changes in quality experienced Due to the prevalence of daily transitions, children were exposed to a greater number of teachers than would have been the case had no transitions taken place. Sensitivity Analysis We conducted three sets of sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of our findings under different circumstances.

      Study Limitations It is important to keep in mind that the centers participating in our study served primarily low-income children, so the frequency of movement found in this study may not be typical of other centers. Psychological Bulletin. Child Development. The state of preschool: state preschool yearbook. Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y. Controlling the false discovery rate: A practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Bowlby J. Attachment and loss: Vol. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. Measurement of quality in preschool child care classrooms: An exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised.

      Early Childhood Research Quarterly. The day-to-day reality of teacher turnover in preschool classrooms: An analysis of classroom context and teacher, director, and parent perspectives. Journal of Research in Childhood Education. Continuity of caregiver for infants and toddlers in center-based child care: Report on a survey of center practices.

      Chapter 1. Educating Everybody's Children: We Know What Works—And What Doesn't

      Social Development. Forsman G. Sampling individuals within households in telephone surveys; Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Statistical Association; San Francisco, CA. Freedman DA. On the so-called Huber sandwich estimator and robust standard errors.

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      The American Statistician. Helburn SW, editor. Cost, quality and child outcomes in child care centers. Technical report. Assessing child-care quality with a telephone interview. Howes C, Hamilton CE.

      By a thread: How child care centers hold on to teachers, how teachers build lasting careers

      Stability and continuity of child-caregiver and child-peer relationships. Processes in the formation of attachment relationships with alternative caregivers. In: Goncu A, Klein E, editors.