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For example, women over fifty who join the Red Hat Society tend to express aspects of themselves in the company of other "Hatters" that would surprise members of their families. Research also suggests that one can develop a greater sense of agency and mastery by stepping into multiple roles.

And because of the lack of familiarity in these various situations, it is necessary to communicate in more "elaborated" patterns of speech with consequential strangers than with loved ones. Relating to assorted others forces an individual to "negotiate, exercise judgment, reconcile, compromise, and take account of the intentions, purposes, motivations, and perspective" of his or her assorted role partners. Weak ties also provide benefits not available in close ties: information, resources, and novelty, as well as a sense of being "known" in the larger community.

The Attachment Theory: How Childhood Affects Life

Consequential strangers often act as "bridges" to new people and groups. In certain situations, downward comparison feeling better than may contribute to self-esteem. One study found that college students tend to view friends as comparable to themselves, but make downward comparisons with acquaintances. Viewing oneself as better than a close partner might jeopardize the relationships. Consequential strangers can also support intimate ties, especially in the family. In a given day, parents deal with child care providers, teachers, coaches, and other parents who can offer tangible aid, such as car pools, information about school policies, as well as emotional support to the family.

Many peripheral relationships are satisfying, although some are also the cause of daily hassles. However, there are certain consequential strangers from whom escape is impossible—a coworker, neighbor, or teacher that rankles. Another study suggests that lying may be more frequent between consequential strangers than between intimates. Aggression in the workplace—an arena filled mostly with consequential strangers rather than close friends—is also well documented. Another way to view the impact of consequential strangers is by pulling the camera back from the individual to the entire network.

Each individual travels through life in what was first conceptualized in the s as a "social convoy"—an entourage of people that he or she has collected along the way. This assortment of personal ties is one type of social network. Some individuals are better or less equipped for life's challenges and crises, not merely because of their strength or socio-economic status, but also because of the composition of their convoys. The perspective of the convoy enables a different view of one's life: "not as a string of events but as a cavalcade of people.

Some close relations are part of the convoy from birth to death parents, children , or for large portions of the journey partners, close friends , while others former roommates, exes drop by the wayside. However, consequential strangers typically travel only part of the way, often for a specific function. The nature of a convoy can impact well being. Epidemiological research, which has focused on both strong and weak ties, suggests that social isolation bodes badly for psychological and physiological health.

Those who had contact in the prior two weeks with six or more types of relationships based on their responses to a checklist of 12 relationship types, both weak and strong are four times less likely to come down with a cold than volunteers who had three or fewer types of connections. A diverse social convoy is also more likely to deliver tangible and emotional support when needed. It is like having a personal "grapevine," be it at work or in the community, that allows one to keep current, to find the best service provider, and to gain access to different types of resources by being a "bridge" between different groups.

In this way, a diverse convoy is like a "liberal arts program, teaching a little of almost everything.

Social-Emotional Development Domain

Similar benefits accrue to groups and institutions. They seek inspiration and encourage collaboration outside their own boundaries as well, in essence drawing from the widest possible range of consequential strangers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In Lang, F.

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New York: Cambridge University Press. But Really Do. New York: W. Journal of Family Theory and Review. American Journal of Sociology. The Future of Children. Personal Relationships. The Consequences of Modernity. Inspired some social scientists to reconsider this bias further. In Cook, K. Sociological Perspectives on Social Psychology. Journal of Marriage and the Family. Merrill Lynch Forum. In Vangelisti, Anita L. The Cambridge Handbook of Personal Relations.

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Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. An Inductive Study". Social Network. Rethinking Friendship: Hidden Solidarities Today.

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In Ito, M. Societal Structures of the Mind. Springfield, IL: Charles C. The Cambridge Handbook of Personal Relationships. Interpersonal Communication and Human Relationships Fifth ed. In Berkowitz, L. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. New York: Academic Press. American Psychologist.

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Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. New York: Warner Books. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Milardo, H. Phoenix, AZ. Journal of Marriage and Family. Employee Rights and Employment Policy Journal. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Health Psychology. In Baltes, P. If not noted otherwise, responses were given on a seven-point Likert scale ranging from 0 strongly disagree to 6 strongly agree. Participants reported their birthdate. Age was calculated as a difference between their birthdate and the first measurement time point assessing social approach and avoidance motives.

We used the Affiliation Tendency and Sensitivity to Rejection Scale Mehrabian, ; German version in Sokolowski, to assess social approach and avoidance motives.

Can relationships boost longevity and well-being?

These scales consist of 50 self-descriptive statements portraying typical social behavior and experience. Although widely used in younger samples, to our knowledge this was the first time this questionnaire was used with older adults. Reliability analyses in the older sample revealed three items that loaded negatively on the rejection sensitivity scale and one item that loaded negatively on the affiliation tendency scale in the older sample.

The assessment of the quantity of social encounters was based on the Rochester Interaction Record Reis and Wheeler, The mere presence of another person was not included in this definition. Pleasantness of social interactions. The same items assessed positive and negative behavior of others. Negative cognitions about social relationships and interactions. Four aspects of subjective well-being were assessed: physical well-being, emotional well-being, loneliness, satisfaction with the move. The short version of the MDMF consists of 12 adjectives that can be aggregated into a score reflecting emotional well-being. Bivariate correlations of all assessed constructs aggregated over the 2 weeks of the diary phase are presented in Table 2. Table 2. Bivariate correlations among the diary constructs at aggregated daily level. To test the hypotheses of age and social motives as predictors of daily experience and behavior, we ran multilevel analyses with age, time since move, and approach and avoidance motives centered as predictors. Age was introduced as a dummy variable with 0 young adults and 1 older adults.

We analyzed the data with the linear mixed-models procedure with Maximum Likelihood Method for deriving the estimates using SPSS Statistics Version 20 with day of the diary 1—14 as level 1 variable and participants as level 2 variable. As the day of the diary did not show any linear or curvilinear trend in almost all of the analyzed variables over the 2 weeks, we excluded it from the analyses.