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  4. RL10 - Wikipedia
  5. Is SpaceX’s Raptor engine the king of rocket engines?

Branch: master Find file Copy path. Find file Copy path. Cannot retrieve contributors at this time. Raw Blame History. There are two versions of the motor, the ground ignited with a standard nozzle exit cone and the air-lit with an extended nozzle exit cone. There are two versions of the motor, one with fixed nozzle and one with thrust vectoring control TVC.

A flaw in the brazing of an RL10B-2 combustion chamber was identified as the cause of failure for the 4 May Delta III launch carrying the Orion-3 communications satellite.

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Chugging was eliminated by injector and propellant feed system modifications that control the pressure, temperature and flow of propellants. We know the list price on an RL If you look at cost over time, a very large portion of the unit cost of the EELVs is attributable to the propulsion systems, and the RL10 is a very old engine, and there's a lot of craftwork associated with its manufacture. That's what this study will figure out, is it worthwhile to build an RL10 replacement?

The RL10 has evolved over the years. The RL10B-2 that was used on the DCSS had improved performance, an extendable nozzle, electro-mechanical gimbaling for reduced weight and increased reliability, and a specific impulse of seconds 4. As of , Aerojet Rocketdyne was working toward incorporating additive manufacturing into the RL10 construction process. The company conducted full-scale, hot-fire tests on an engine with a printed main injector in March , [18] and on an engine with a printed thrust chamber assembly in April Three RL10C-X engine versions are undergoing the qualification process, and will include major engine components using 3D printing, which is expected to reduce lead times and cost.

Another possible applications is as in-space propellant depots in LEO or at L 2 that could be used as way-stations for other rockets to stop and refuel on the way to beyond-LEO or interplanetary missions. Cleanup of space debris was also proposed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Advanced Cryogenic Evolved Stage. Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on February 4, Retrieved February 27, Aerojet Rocketdyne.

March Archived from the original on August 31, Gunter's Space Pages. History of liquid propellant rocket engines. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. November 24, Archived from the original on June 14, National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on December 28, Retrieved January 4, August 16, MDC 99HA. Archived from the original PDF on June 16, Archived from the original on June 8, Four variants of the Taurus launch vehicle exist. A second size uses the C first stage and a slightly larger Orion 50S-G second stage.

Last accessed on March 30, Last accessed on November 19, The Taurus system is evolving more responsive payload integration and launch operations.

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Second stages are integrated horizontally and payloads are integrated with the fairing in a separate area. This format for operations will be an almost mandatory part of the total system architecture of future operationally responsive launch systems. Minotaur's third and fourth stages, structures, and payload fairing are common with the Pegasus XL rocket.

Minotaur is considered a small launch vehicle. It can lift lb to a nm, sun-synchronous orbit. This is roughly 1. All payload customers must be U.


The Secretary of Defense holds approval power for each launch mission. The Sea Launch system combines launch, home port, and marine segments to offer a heavy-lift capability of 6, kg and injection into GTO from a performance-enhancing equatorial launch site. The payload accommodation module consists of a graphite epoxy 4-m diameter payload fairing and a payload interface adapter. All launch vehicle processing, spacecraft processing, and payload encapsulation takes place at home port in Long Beach.

The ACS encompasses the launch control center, range safety, a weather station, and accommodations for crew and customers. The Boeing Sea Launch Web site indicates there were 22 successful launches from this system through June The Sea Launch operations concept could provide key advantages for a variety of small to medium-size launch vehicles and needs to be seriously considered as a viable launch vehicle for military geosynchronous payloads even though ownership is multinational.

This has two significant performance advantages. The maritime launch also nearly eliminates range safety. Last accessed on August 8, DoD should incorporate this concept into some of the total systems architectures options to be studied for future operationally responsive access to space.

RL10 - Wikipedia

The Kistler K-1 vehicle is a two-stage fully reusable vehicle that is being designed for flights, a 9-day turnaround, and 3-day response. Both stages return to the launch site for refurbishment and reuse and use horizontal vehicle processing and checkout. The K-1 uses the NK engine that was developed by the Russians and designed for multiple starts with large margins for robustness. The K-1 vehicle uses three NKs in the first stage and one in the second stage.

Both stages are returned to Earth by parachutes.

Is SpaceX’s Raptor engine the king of rocket engines?

It has been extensively tested and was fully qualified for the Russian lunar program. It incorporates an Aerojet-developed state-of-the-art electronic controller, ignition system, restart capability, an electromechanical actuator control valve, and a gimbaling system. The verification engine modifications are complete, and six tests have been completed. The NK was developed for altitude performance and is essentially an NK with an increased nozzle expansion ratio. Kistler has teamed with Rocketplane Ltd. The Rocketplane Kistler team expects to provide unique suborbital and orbital commercial space transportation services for passengers and cargo through its fleet of highly reliable, cost-effective, and reusable aerospace vehicles.

All license agreements are in place. The Kistler K-1 vehicle, with its recoverable first and second stages and its available first- and second-stage engines, is an option as part of an advanced overall architecture for assured U. Responsive spacelift is shown in the DoD space transportation roadmap in Figure In the demonstration phase, through , the objective is to have two or three small launch vehicles be flown. Some of the vehicles initiated under FALCON are expected to transition into cost-effective commercial launchers that could replace high-cost small vehicles.

The overall goal of the program is to develop and validate in-flight technologies that will enable both near-term and far-term capabilities to execute time-critical, prompt global-reach missions while at the same time demonstrating affordable and responsive spacelift. These technologies might also enable future development of a reusable hypersonic cruise vehicle HCV in the far term circa There are two tasks in this program.

The technologies for the launch vehicles needed to place a small payload into LEO or to place an HTV at its insertion point have enough in common that the design for both missions is encompassed within Task 1 DARPA, For the first part of the mission, the top-level requirements for the operational system for the SLV are 1, lb payload with the potential for an increase to a For the hypersonic systems, the objectives are unpowered, maneuverable, hypersonic glide.

The reusable HCV would be an autonomous aircraft capable of taking off from a conventional military runway and striking targets 9, nm distant in less than 2 hr. The first 6 months of the program Phase I were for concept development and identification of technologies. Phase II, which followed, was divided into three parts. Demonstration flights are expected to carry prototype autonomous flight safety systems and low-cost tracking and data relay satellite system transceivers.

It is possible that the winning vehicles can contract directly with NASA or private entities e. Figure summarizes the four vehicle concepts in the demonstration phase in Each concept is discussed in more detail in Appendix E. David Weeks, personal communication to committee member Ivett Leyva on May 18, It is worth mentioning that SpaceX has its own funding. DARPA funds only the demonstration flight and making the launch operations responsive.

The vehicle has been under development for a couple of years but was lost as a consequence of fire during its maiden launch in FALCON is the first concrete program devoted to the realization of affordable and responsive spacelift. Each of the four contractors for Phase IIA, Task 1, worked on several technologies to meet these goals. Some of the key technologies being developed or optimized that could be modified for or transferred to other programs are ablative thrust chambers, pressurization systems VaPaK, Tridyne, etc. Ablative thrust chambers were used by at least two contractors as an alternative to actively cooled ones. Composites were also being looked at by at least two contractors to reduce weight. Hybrid combustion was being revisited via a patented staged-combustion concept to achieve both combustion stability and performance comparable to that of liquid-fuel rockets. Common to all contractors is the objective of low-cost operations, which drove all of them to find innovative ways of streamlining their manufacturing, integration, transporting, and storage processes.

Another observation is that the subsystems of all the vehicles are modular and should be scalable, although to different degrees. These qualities potentially make some of the vehicle first stages candidates for replacement strap-ons for the Atlas or Delta vehicle families. Also, scaled versions of some of the first-stage engines could potentially be used as larger-thrust second-stage engines.

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FALCON promises to foster a new approach that designs space launch vehicles for versatility from the very beginning. For example, the requirements were very few but very concise. This truly allowed for outside-the-box thinking, which is evident in the systems designed by the four contractors in Phase IIA, Task 1. Last accessed on November 7, Each of the four companies under Task 1 has committed to at least two new technologies to reduce the cost of access to space.

In all cases, the system configurations being developed must allow scalability, to mid- and even heavy-lift vehicles. They entail also, to different degrees, modular rack-and-stack approaches. In its early phases it stimulated the design and demonstration of new, low-cost, responsive technologies for space access. This program plans to perform in-flight validations of technologies leading to highly responsive vehicles that can carry out time-critical, global-reach missions.

Successful FALCON demonstration vehicles and, later, production vehicles would open the door to a larger market for commercial space payloads.

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An increased launch rate would allow for the increased production of SLVs, which in turn would lower the cost of the vehicles through true mass manufacturing. Also, if more satellites could be launched each year, they would not need to be designed for a year lifespan but could instead be updated or replaced more often. Expendable vehicles using low-parts-count, pressure-fed liquid propulsion systems such as systems used for the AirLaunch FALCON demonstrator and the SpaceX vehicle can be developed for much less money than reusable ones.

Depending on the annual flight rate, they can also cost less per flight. As stated above, the overall goal of the FALCON program is to develop and validate, in flight, technologies that could provide both a near-term and a far-term capability to execute time-critical, prompt global-reach missions from the continental United States or equivalent reach from basing outside the continental United States while also demonstrating affordable and responsive spacelift for a variety of small satellites.